Specifically, exposure to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)–modulated or to Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)–modulated cell phone RFR was associated with an increase in the incidence of malignant schwannoma in the heart of male rats.
There was also a significant increase in incidence of right ventricular cardiomyopathy in both male and female rats exposed to 3 watts per kilogram (W/kg) and 6 W/kg of GSM-modulated RFR, and in male rates exposed to 6 W/kg of CDMA-modulated RFR.
The researchers also observed other, albeit weaker, effects for both modulations that included malignant glioma in the brain, adenomas in the pituitary gland (pars distalis), and pheochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla.
In addition, marginal effects were seen for GSM-exposed male rats in the prostate gland and in pancreatic islets, and granular cell tumors of the brain were observed. Such effects were not observed in CDMA-exposed rats. Conversely, liver effects were noted only in CDMA-exposed male rats, although the relationship between these responses and exposure to GSM or CDMA RFR remains unclear.