The authors found that carbapenems, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, metronidazole, and piperacillin/tazobactam all increased the risk for CDI. However, the risk dropped with use of clindamycin, macrolides, and tetracyclines.
"The clindamycin findings are somewhat surprising in that clindamycin has been classified as a high risk for development of a CDI in both the hospital and in the community," the authors write. "This finding may be due to reduced use of clindamycin over time." The results suggesting a possible protective effect from tetracycline and macrolide match up with previous research findings, they write.