Participants were randomly assigned to one of three types of cognitive training — memory, reasoning, or speed of processing — or to a control group that received no cognitive training.
Each training arm consisted of ten 60- to 75-minute sessions over 5 to 6 weeks. The memory and reasoning training took place in a classroom format with pencil-and-paper types of exercises.
"The memory training taught people strategies they can use to better remember lists of information, and the reasoning training taught strategies to recognize patterns to be able to better solve problems," said Dr Edwards.
The speed of processing training was the only computerized intervention. This training targets "mental quickness," which, said Dr Edwards, declines with age.