We therefore investigated the compound with the highest overlap, SFN, in greater detail. SFN is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli. It activates nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (NRF2) by modifying the conformation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) cytoplasmic chaperone, thus releasing NRF2 for translocation to the nucleus and transcriptional activation of genes with the antioxidant response element (ARE) in their promoters (23). Although SFN uptake into cells leads to an initial burst of reactive oxygen species, it then rapidly activates the KEAP1-NRF2-ARE system to induce antioxidant enzymes and increase cellular glutathione for an overall antioxidative effect (24). As an inducer of endogenous antioxidants, SFN has been extensively studied for its protective effects in different experimental models associated with oxidative stress and chemoprotection (25), inflammatory disorders (26), and fatty liver disease (27, 28). To date, SFN has not been implicated for the treatment of exaggerated hepatic glucose production in T2D.