Fusarium Head Blight — Small Grains — Penn State Extension
Fusarium graminearum is known to produce two important mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone, which can contaminate the diseased grain. The mycotoxin DON can cause reduced feed intake and lower weight gain in animals at levels as low as 1–3 ppm, especially in swine. Vomiting and feed refusal can occur when levels of DON exceed 10 ppm. Humans are also sensitive to DON, and the FDA has recommended that DON levels not exceed 1 ppm in human food. Ruminant animals, including dairy cows and beef cattle, are less sensitive to the toxin. The fungal toxin zearalenone has estrogenic properties and produces many reproductive disorders in animals. Swine are the most sensitive to the toxin, but cattle and sheep may also be affected. Zearalenone concentrations of 1–5 ppm can result in negative effects in animals and humans. Producers concerned about these mycotoxins should have grain tested prior to feeding to animals. Contact the state or local extension office for more information about testing for mycotoxins.