PPIs should be used on a short-term basis for individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or conditions such as erosive esophagitis. These patients can also use PPIs for maintenance and occasional symptom management, but those with uncomplicated GERD should be weaned off PPIs if they respond favorably to them.
If a patient is unable to be weaned off PPIs, then ambulatory esophageal pH and impedance monitoring should be done, as this will allow clinicians to determine if the patient has a functional syndrome or GERD. Lifelong PPI treatment should not be considered until this step is taken, according to the new best practice statements.
"Short-term PPIs are highly effective for uncomplicated GERD [but] because patients who cannot reduce PPIs face lifelong therapy, we would consider testing for an acid-related disorder in this situation," the authors explained. "However, there is no high-quality evidence on which to base this recommendation."
Patients who have symptomatic GERD or Barrett's esophagus, either symptomatic or asymptomatic, should be on long-term PPI treatment. Patients who are at a higher risk for NSAID-induced ulcer bleeding should be taking PPIs if they continue to take NSAIDs.
When recommending long-term PPI treatment for a patient, the patient need not use probiotics on a regular basis; there appears to be no need to routinely check the patient's bone mineral density, serum creatinine, magnesium, or vitamin B12 level on a regular basis. In addition, they need not consume more than the Recommended Dietary Allowance of calcium, magnesium, or vitamin B12.