Wednesday, January 11, 2017
Can PQQ be used for post stroke recovery?
In experiments using cultured cells, it was reported that PQQ Na2 prevents oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. It has been shown that PQQ prevented 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death of the dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and primary rat neurons and that its preventive effect was stronger than that of vitamin C and E. 6-OHDA is a well-known neurotoxin that compromises mitochondria complex I, resulting in the production of ROS, such as O2-, hydroxyl radicals, and H2O2. Similar results were obtained in the experiment using H2O2.
Moreover, marked decreases in ischemia damage are found in in vivo rat models, such as cardiovascular or cerebral ischemia models. The underlying mechanisms elucidated were that PQQ acts as an anti-oxidant by scavenging O2- and protects mitochondria from oxidative stress-induced damage.
In humans, following a single dose of PQQ Na2 (0.2 mg/kg body weight), thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARS), which are measured by the malondialdehyde generated from lipid hydroperoxides, significantly decreased over the time course of the study. In addition, the change of TBARS values correlated significantly with the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) for PQQ Na2. These results suggest that PQQ has a potential as an anti-oxidant.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a novel vitamin-like compound found in plant foods that is showing a wide range of benefits to brain and body function based upon preclinical studies and initial clinical evaluation. Although PQQ is not currently viewed as a vitamin, it is likely to be considered an essential nutrient in the future.
What exactly does PQQ do?
PQQ stimulates growth and serves as a cofactor for a special class of enzymes involved in cellular function including cellular growth, development, differentiation, and survival.
PQQ is also as an extremely powerful antioxidant capable of catalyzing continuous cycling (the ability to perform repeated oxidation and reduction reactions) to a much greater degree compared to other antioxidants. For example, PQQ is able to carry out 20,000 catalytic conversions compared to only 4 for vitamin C.
Are there any food sources of PQQ?
PQQ has been found in all plant foods analyzed to date. PQQ-rich foods include parsley, green peppers, kiwi fruit, papaya and tofu. These foods contain about 2-3 mcg per 100 grams. Green tea provides about the same amount per 4 oz serving.