Memory for medical information is often poor and inaccurate, especially when the patient is old or anxious. Patients tend to focus on diagnosis-related information and fail to register instructions on treatment. Simple and specific instructions are better recalled than general statements. Patients can be helped to remember medical information by use of explicit categorization techniques. In addition, spoken information should be supported with written or visual material. Visual communication aids are especially effective in low-literacy patients, but video or multimedia techniques do not improve memory performance or adherence to therapy.