Americans drink 400 million cups a day (yes, you read that correctly) and we spend $30 billion on it every year.
The good news is that there's a lot of research that links drinking coffee with health benefits, including lower risk of cancer, Parkinson's disease, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease. I covered that research in detail in a recent podcast.
Here's the bad news: while coffee is undoubtedly beneficial for some people, it may be harmful for others.
I talked about some of the factors, including sleep, stress, and intolerance to proteins in coffee beans, that determine individual response to coffee in another podcast a while back.
But there's another important factor to consider: genotype.
Coffee is the primary source of caffeine for Americans. Caffeine is metabolized by an enzyme in the liver that is encoded for by the CYP1A2 gene. Unfortunately, about 50 percent of the population has a variant in the CYP1A2 gene that leads to slow processing of caffeine.
For these "slow metabolizers," drinking coffee:
- Is associated with a higher risk of heart disease
- Is associated with a higher risk of hypertension
- Is associated with impaired fasting glucose
- May not have the protective effects against some cancers that it appears to for "fast metabolizers"